Detailed explanation of the working principle of optical encoder


Release time:

2023-02-27

The optical encoder, a sensor that converts the mechanical geometric displacement on the output shaft into a pulse or digital quantity by means of photoelectric conversion, is the most used sensor at present. The general optical encoder mainly consists of a grating disk and a photoelectric detection device. In the servo system, because the photoelectric code disk and the motor coaxial, when the motor rotates, the grating disk and the motor rotate at the same speed. By the light-emitting diode and other electronic components composed of detection device detection output a number of pulse signal, its principle as shown in the figure. By calculating the number of pulses output by the photoelectric encoder per second can reflect the current speed of the motor. In addition, in order to judge the direction of rotation, the code plate can also provide two channels of optical code output with 90° phase difference, and determine the motor's steering according to the state change of the dual-channel optical code. According to the detection principle, encoders can be divided into optical, magnetic, inductive and capacitive types. According to its scaling method and signal output form, it can be divided into 3 types: incremental type, absolute type and hybrid type.

The optical encoder, a sensor that converts the mechanical geometric displacement on the output shaft into a pulse or digital quantity by means of photoelectric conversion, is the most used sensor at present. The general optical encoder mainly consists of a grating disk and a photoelectric detection device. In the servo system, because the photoelectric code disk and the motor coaxial, when the motor rotates, the grating disk and the motor rotate at the same speed. By the light-emitting diode and other electronic components composed of detection device detection output a number of pulse signal, its principle as shown in the figure. By calculating the number of pulses output by the photoelectric encoder per second can reflect the current speed of the motor. In addition, in order to judge the direction of rotation, the code plate can also provide two channels of optical code output with 90° phase difference, and determine the motor's steering according to the state change of the dual-channel optical code. According to the detection principle, encoders can be divided into optical, magnetic, inductive and capacitive types. According to its scaling method and signal output form, it can be divided into 3 types: incremental type, absolute type and hybrid type.

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